Agra, located on the banks of river Yamuna, was the capital city of Lodi and Mughal Empire for more than 150 years before the court was shifted to Delhi by Aurangzeb in 1658. Sikaner Lodhi first shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra. His son Ibrahim Lodhi ruled from here for nine years before being defeated by Babar in the Battle of Panipat. Babar, Humayun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb had lived here and ruled over the entire Sultanat from here. Mughal rulers in general and Shah Jahan and Akbar in particular were passionate about architecture and erected many palaces, forts, gardens, mosques and mausoleums. Famous among these are the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and Sikandra, Mariam's tomb, Itmad-ud-daulah's tomb and Chini ka Rauza. Despite these architectural masterpieces the streets of the old city are narrow and most of the buildings are in a dilapidated state.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire the city was captured by Jats and Marathas for a brief period of time before becoming a part of the British Empire. The British made Agra their regional capital and built a huge cantonment to the south.
The city today is an important tourist destination and a manufacturing hub famous for garments, leather, handicrafts and jewelery.