Agra fort is one of the most important forts in India as it has been home to great rulers of the Mughal and Lodi dynasty. Babar, Humayun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb have lived in this fort and have governed the country from here. Sikander Lodi was the first ruler to have shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra and had lived in this fort. After his death, his son Ibrahim Lodi held it for 9 years before being defeated by Babar in the battle of Panipat. Several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by the Lodis. Babar had little interest in architecture and had very little to contribute to the fort. Humayun succeeded Babar and did add some new building but none of them survived. Humayun's son Akbar started rebuilding the fort in 1565 and it took 17 years to complete. Out of these additions only the walls and a pavilion have been known to survive with certainty. Most of the buildings that one finds there are attributed to Shah Jahan
Structurally the fort is semi circular in plan and runs north-south along the west bank of Yamuna river. The walls are 70ft high, have double ramparts separated by moats and have several massive circular bastions. There are three massive entry points via the Delhi Gate, Lahore gate and Amar Singh Gate. The first two are not in use now and the entry to the fort is through the Amar Singh Gate.
Shah Jahan Mahal
It is located between the Khas Mahal and Jehangiri Mahal. It is one of the earliest attempts by Shah Jahan to convert a red sandstone building according to his taste. The palace consists of a large hall, side rooms and an octagonal tower. White plaster and colorful floral designs give it a marble like appearance.
Rang Mahal or Color Palace was meant for the royal ladies.