Punjab (Persian Panj~five and ab~water) or the land of five rivers is a part of erstwile Punjab Region. The Indian state of Punjab was created at the time of partition when the larger chunk constituting 60% of the area that was dominated by muslims went to Pakistan and the rest became a part of independent India. The state is divided into three regions - Majha, Doaba and Malwa and shares its borders on the west with Pakistan, on the north with Jammu and Kashmir, on the east and south with Haryana and on the north east with Himachal Pradesh. The five rivers after which the region is named are Jhelum, Beas, Ravi, Sutlej and Chenab.
Although the Sikhs are the most important aspect of Punjab's history recent archaeological discoveries have indicated that the region had been inhabited as early as 7000BC. Discoveries also indicate that the region was a part of The Indus Valley Civilization established by the Harappans that existed around 4000BC. Subsequently the Aryans migrated to Punjab and it was during this time that the four vedas were composed. During 330BC Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and captured most of the Punjab Region that now lies in Pakistan. With the medival history came the Ghoris, Khiljis, Temurs, Lodhis and later the Mughals who came here and faught many decisive battles here. The Mughal period also saw the emergence of Guru Nanak who was a central figure in Sikhism and whose ideas and belifs left a lasting impression on the regions culture and history. The period during the Mughal rule saw the tranformation of Sikhism from a religious movement to Military when Aurangzed ordered the salying of Sikh Gurus. The emergence of the Sikh Empire under Raja Ranjith Singh in the first half of the eighteenth century came to include Punjab, Kashmir and Peshawar. However after the death of Raja Ranjith Singh and the Anglo-Sikh wars the area came under the British Empire.
The biggest draw is the Golden Temple(Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar -the holiest site for the Sikhs, and gets millions of visitors throught the year. Apart from being an important pilgrimage center, Punjab boasts of ancient monuments, palaces, museums and wildlife sanctuaries.